By Ousmane Power-Greene
Against Wind and Tide tells the tale of African American's conflict opposed to the yankee Colonization Society (ACS), based in 1816 that allows you to go back loose blacks to its colony Liberia. even though ACS contributors thought of unfastened black colonization in Africa a benevolent company, such a lot black leaders rejected the ACS, fearing that the association sought pressured elimination. As Ousmane ok. Power-Greene's tale indicates, those African American anticolonizationists didn't think Liberia might ever be a real "black American homeland."
In this examine of anticolonization agitation, Power-Greene attracts on newspapers, assembly mins, and letters to discover the concerted attempt at the a part of 19th century black activists, group leaders, and spokespersons to problem the yank Colonization Society's try to make colonization of loose blacks federal coverage. The ACS insisted the plan embodied empowerment. the U.S., they argued, may by no means settle for loose blacks as voters, and the single method to the prestige of unfastened blacks was once to create an independent kingdom that may essentially reject racism at its center. however the activists and reformers at the contrary part believed that the colonization stream used to be itself deeply racist and actually one of many maximum stumbling blocks for African american citizens to achieve citizenship within the United States.
Power-Greene synthesizes debates approximately colonization and emigration, situating this advanced and enduring factor into an ever broader dialog approximately kingdom development and id formation within the Atlantic global.
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Extra resources for Against Wind and Tide: The African American Struggle Against the Colonization Movement
It was here that Saunders read his “Memoir,” based upon his experience in Haiti, in an effort to build a network of white American philanthropists with the financial wherewithal to fund African American emigration to Haiti. Saunders also utilized this opportunity to differentiate between colonization and emigration, and he expressed to the delegates the general fear among free blacks that a large-scale colonization scheme had been hatched to expel them from the United States. 37 After deliberating on the merits of colonization, the American Convention’s committee reported back that it found the ACS’s plan unrealistic, and that it would neither improve the lives of African Americans nor eradicate slavery in the United States.
Of course, James Forten and Prince Saunders must have balked at such conclusions, even if they were well intended. What made the committee’s recommendations particularly irksome to free black leaders were the specific comments that sounded nearly identical to the 26 / “the means of alleviating the suffering” types of racialist comments made by members of the American Colonization Society. 42 Even so, Rawle was well aware of free blacks’ animosity toward colonization, and for this reason he supported the idea of settling free blacks in the West.
In 1814 Wilberforce commented, “I am very sure I should not lose a day in embarking for Hayti. 17 Like Wilberforce, Thomas Clarkson, the famed abolitionist who rose to public attention when he became one of the original members of the Committee for the Abolition of the Slave Trade in 1787, took to Christophe’s vision as well, and he became his adviser in Europe. Clarkson “the means of alleviating the suffering” / 21 kept Christophe informed about the probability of French invasion, and more generally of French and English opinions about Haiti, while offering him advice about his policies—especially the nature of his military rule.