By John R. Baker, Ralph Muller, David Rollinson
The Advances in Parasitology sequence includes in-depth studies on present themes of curiosity in modern parasitology. It comprises scientific experiences on parasites of significant effect, equivalent to trypanosomiasis and scabies, and extra conventional components, equivalent to zoology, taxonomy, and lifestyles background, which form present considering and purposes. * sequence has the second one optimum ISI influence think about the parasitology team! (4.818 in 2002) * participants are overseas specialists within the box
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Additional resources for Advances in Parasitology, Vol. 58
At this point, it is however important to emphasize that infected MÈs are able to present parasite Ags provided that they come from the external milieu. In that LEISHMANIA SPP. 29 case, efficiency of presentation depends upon the APC parasite load, as noted above for the presentation by infected MÈs of exogenous nonparasite Ags. So, in vivo, it is quite possible that infected MÈs take up parasite Ags released by parasitized cells or originating from live or killed extracellular parasites allowing them to reactivate CD4 T lymphocytes more or less efficiently according to the level of MHC class II expression and the number of parasites they harbour.
C. ANTOINE ET AL. Figure 4 Ultrastructural aspect of a bone marrow-derived MÈ infected 18 h before with L. amazonensis metacyclic promastigotes. Parasites that have already started their differentiation into amastigotes are located in a huge communal PV. One hour before fixation, cells were incubated with horseradish peroxidase (HRP, 25 mg/ml) to load endosomes and lysosomes. Cells were then fixed and processed for peroxidase cytochemistry before embedding. HRP-containing endosomes/lysosomes (arrows) fuse with PV as indicated by the electron dense product present in the PV lumen.
Of course, it is tempting to see in this phenomenon an escape mechanism from the adaptive immune response but the formal demonstration of such a possibility remains to be provided. Nevertheless, it is likely that internalization of PV membrane molecules by Leishmania is a means evolved by the parasites to modulate their intracellular niche. 2. -C. ANTOINE ET AL. infected MÈs in the activation/reactivation of these cells has not been thoroughly examined. Furthermore, the few studies bearing on this topic have provided contradictory results.