By Ben Dawes (ed.)
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This inter-agency instruction manual specializes in potent malaria keep an eye on responses to advanced emergencies, quite in the course of the acute section whilst reliance on overseas humanitarian help is maximum. It presents policy-makers, planners, box programme managers and scientific coordinators with sensible counsel on designing and imposing measures to minimize malaria morbidity and mortality.
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It may also be applied to study the factors of importance in the blood meal. For instance, of anticoagulant techniques for maintaining the fluidity of the blood lake, defibrination was best; female flies fed by this method often survived as well as those fed directly on a cow. Ethylenediaminetetra-acetate disodium salt (EDTA) appeared to be toxic. The blood lakes were found convenient for the collection of metacyclic trypanosomes from infected flies. In studies of the factors determining the proportion of females becoming inseminated in the laboratory, the age of the males used and the relative proportions of the two sexes were found important; the fertility rate was increased by using 10or 15-day-old males, as compared with 5-day-old males, and by using numbers of males equal to or greater than the numbers of females, as compared with numbers of males half those of females (Southon and Cockings, in EATRO, 1962-63).
Cunningham and Harley (in EATRO, 1961) showed that the infectivity of blood forms ingested by the fly persists less than 24 h so that this possibility can be simply eliminated by keeping the flies for that period before processing them. I N T H E MAMMALIAN HOST VI. THETRYPANOSOME A . T H E ESTABLISHMENT OF T H E I N F E C T I O N 1. Early Development The work of Gordon et al. (1956) indicated that the saliva of Glossina at the time of biting (and therefore the metacyclic forms of T. brucei subgroup trypanosomes) was likely to enter the capillary circulation as well as the tissue spaces.
Trypanosomes can only be easily and accurately counted when they are fairly concentrated, say more than antilog 5 organisms per ml. 3. The Viable Preservation of Trypanosomes Polge and Soltys (1957) showed that the addition of glycerol to the trypanosome suspension to be preserved, and cooling the suspension slowly, improved survival rates. , 1963). The principles governing the use of low temperature preservation for laying down stabilate material of trypanosomes have been discussed by Cunningham and Lumsden (1965).