By Mel Thompson
The 3rd version of moral idea has been up-to-date in accordance with the revised a degree specification specifications. It offers a vital heritage to moral concerns via giving an summary of significant moral theories and the way those could be utilized to a number of modern ethical concerns. the recent version combines the entire strengths of the second one variation with a brand new layout and lines to make the content material extra obtainable to all scholars that allows you to boost their realizing of the subject. New positive aspects contain: - Key questions through the chapters to assist scholars concentrate on the main matters - key words outlined and defined during the chapters - Profiles of key contributors - their contribution and value - extra precis diagrams all through to help revision - pictures and illustrations - Revision checklists on the finish of chapters - New exam-style questions and information on the finish of every bankruptcy.
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Extra info for Access to Religion and Philosophy. Ethical Theory
Example Suppose a person has a heart attack and dies at the wheel of a car, which subsequently veers out of control and kills someone. The action of swerving off the road and killing the pedestrian is not one in which there is any conscious decision or obvious negligence. On the other hand, one might ask: ● ● Did the person driving the car know about the heart condition? Had he or she been warned by a doctor not to drive? The decision, rather than what happened after the heart attack, could therefore be considered morally wrong.
This approach is called determinism, and it is important for the philosophy of science, where is it often argued that Newtonian physics is essentially deterministic. Thus thoughts are in fact no more than electrical impulses in the brain; our actions are merely movements occasioned by chemical and electrical activity. If everything is reduced to its simplest physical components, and those components can be shown to be determined by the laws of physics, then the complex whole is also thereby determined.
The twentieth century provided a host of examples of political systems which were widely considered to be evil on the grounds of their disregard for individual human rights. Some of those who acted on behalf of such regimes were subsequently accused of crimes against humanity, but argued that they were not guilty because they were simply following orders. Take the example of a soldier or prison guard who is ordered to ‘soften up’ a prisoner prior to interrogation. It may be argued that a person has a duty to disobey a command that is obviously wrong, since it involves actions deemed unlawful under international law.